Khamis, 21 Mei 2009

Clockwise dan Anti-clockwise

Awal pagi ini seperti biasa saya datang ke tempat kerja. Sejurus selepas memasuki kawasan pejabat, saya nampak Tuan Pengarah sedang berbual-bual dengan kakitangan pentadbiran. Perkara seperti ini memang tak pernah saya lihat yang mana Pengarah berbual-bual dengan kakitangan seperti kawan biasa.

Topik perbualan adalah berkisar tentang sistem clockwise dan anti-clockwise. Saya yang agak berminat ingin mengetahui juga secara lanjut. dari itu saya telah membuat beberapa rujukan di internet tentang perkara ini. Apa penting nya sistem ini dan apa pengaruhnya dalam kehidupan. Saya amat berharap yang rakan-rakan semua dapat memanfaatkan perkara yang jarang-jarang kita ambil perhatian ini.

A clockwise (typically abbreviated as CW) motion is one that proceeds 'like the clock's hands': from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. In a mathematical sense, a circle defined parametrically in a positive Cartesian plane by the equations x = sin t and y = cos t is traced clockwise as t increases in value. Described another way, constantly turning right is clockwise motion, as viewed from above. The opposite sense of rotation is anticlockwise (the current British English term), or counterclockwise (now chiefly North American English and typically abbreviated CCW).

Origin of the term

Before clocks were commonplace, the terms 'sunwise' and deiseil (from the Scottish Gaelic from the same root as the Latin dexter, "right". The word is also used for "ready") were used for clockwise. (Of course, deasil (righthandwards) is only sunwise in the Northern Hemisphere.) 'Widdershins' or 'withershins' (from Middle Low German weddersinnes, "opposite course") was used for anticlockwise.

Technically, the terms clockwise (CW) and anticlockwise (CCW) can only be applied to a rotational motion once a side of the rotational plane is specified, from which the rotation is observed. For example, the daily rotation of the Earth is anticlockwise when viewed from the North Pole, and clockwise when viewed from the South Pole.

Clocks traditionally follow this sense of rotation because of the clock's predecessor: the sundial. Clocks with hands were first built in the Northern Hemisphere (see main article), and they were made to work like sundials. In order for a horizontal sundial to work (in the Northern Hemisphere), it must be placed looking southward. Then, when the Sun moves in the sky (east to south to west), the shadow cast on the opposite side of the sundial moves with the same sense of rotation (west to north to east). That's why hours were drawn in sundials in that manner, and that's why modern clocks have their numbers set in the same way.

Occasionally, clocks whose hands revolve anticlockwise are nowadays sold as a novelty. Historically, some Jewish clocks were built that way, for example in some Synagogue towers in Europe. This was done in accordance with the right-to-left reading direction of Hebrew .

Usage

Typical nuts, screws, bolts, and bottle caps are tightened (moved away from the observer) clockwise and loosened (moved towards the observer) anticlockwise, in accordance with the right-hand rule.

A mnemonic for remembering this is "righty-tighty, lefty-loosey" (right to tighten, left to loosen) (R H Daniel, 1980). This mnemonic is not unambiguous, however; depending on where the handle of the wrench, for example, is when the wrench is first applied to the nut (or bolt), moving it to the right may result in turning the nut (or bolt) clockwise or anticlockwise. Worse, when the wrench handle points exactly at the 3 o'clock (0°) or 9 o'clock (180°) position, the mnemonic offers no help. And the mnemonic is applicable only to conventionally-threaded objects, those referred to as being 'right-handed' or as having 'right-hand' threads.

More generally, to the extent the mnemonic can be applied at all, it only works when right and left are considered relative to an address of the top, or face, of the object, and not when the bottom, or back, of the object is being addressed. Analogously, the meaning of clockwise falls out when you are viewing the clock-face from within the clock - as you might on a tour of the Clock Tower, part of the Palace of Westminster, in London.

An alternative, simple-to-use approach - and one based on the right-hand rule - is to place one's loosely-clenched right hand above the object with the thumb pointing in the direction one wants the screw, nut, bolt, or cap ultimately to move, and the curl of the fingers, from the palm to the tips, will indicate in which way one needs to turn the screw, nut, bolt or cap to achieve the desired result. Most threaded objects are susceptible to application of the above; for a countably small number of exceptions (read: 'left-handed' threads, or 'reverse threads'), substitute the left hand instead.

The reason for the clockwise orientation of most screws is that supination of the arm, which is used by a right-handed person to turn a screw clockwise, is generally stronger than pronation.

Sometimes the opposite sense of thread is used for a special reason; a thread might need to be left-handed to prevent the prevalent stresses from loosening it. In a pair of bicycle pedals, for instance, one must be reverse-threaded, or the pedal will fall off; similarly, the flyer whorl of a spinning wheel uses a left-hand thread to keep from loosening in normal use. Some gas fittings are left-handed to prevent disastrous misconnection; for example, oxygen fittings are right-handed but acetylene and other flammable gases use left-handed fittings.

In trigonometry, and mathematics in general, plane angles are conventionally measured anticlockwise. In navigation, compass headings increase in a clockwise direction around the compass card, starting with 0° at the top of the card.

In humans

Most left-handed humans prefer to draw circles clockwise and traverse buildings clockwise, as most right-handed people prefer to draw circles and traverse buildings counterclockwise. It is believed that this can be attributed to a dominant brain hemispheres.

(Dari Wikipedia)

Dalam islam pula, ada macam-macam perkara yang tanpa kita sedar sebenarnya berputwr mengikut arah lawan jam (anti clockwise) seperti, ibadah tawaf dan bumi berputar mengelilingi matahari mengikut arah lawan jam. Selain dari itu, dalam fizik arus elektrik yang bergerak 90 darjah ke atas menghasilkan medan magnet yang bergerak arah anti clockwise (peraturan tangan kanan).


“Dan daripada air Kami jadikan segala sesuatu yang hidup. Maka mengapakah mereka tiada juga beriman? Dan, matahari bergerak pada garis edarnya. Demikian ketetapan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa dan Mengetahui.” (Surah Yaasin: 38).

“Dan apakah orang-orang yang kafir tidak mengetahui bahwasanya langit dan bumi itu kedua-duanya nya dahulu adalah suatu yang padu, kemudian Kami pisahkan antara keduanya (dengan kekuatan Kami).“
(surah al-Anbiya´, ayat 30)

Allah s.w.t berfirman yang bermaksud: “Sesungguhnya bilangan bulan-bulan pada sisi (hukum) Allah s.w.t ialah dua belas bulan, (yang telah ditetapkan) dalam kitab Allah s.w.t semasa Dia menciptakan langit dan bumi, di antaranya empat bulan yang dihormati. (Ketetapan) yang demikian itu ialah agama yang betul dan lurus, maka janganlah kamu menganiayai diri kamu dalam bulan-bulan yang dihormati itu (dengan melanggar larangan-Nya); dan perangilah kaum kafir musyrik seluruhnya sebagaimana mereka memerangi kamu seluruhnya; dan ketahuilah sesungguhnya Allah beserta orang yang bertakwa.”
(Surah at-Taubah: 36)




Sebenarnya, banyak lagi perkara yang mergerak secara anticlockwise. Seperti puting beliung dan reaksi kimia (anti clockwise rule). Apa yang memusykilkan saya adalah, betapa sinonim sistem ini dengan kehidupan manusia. Mesti ada sesuatu yang boleh dimanfaatkan dari keajaiban ini. Atas sebab inilah wujudnya jam tangan yang disusun secara anti clockwise.

Tiada ulasan:


Provided by All Famous Quotes

Follow my post