Memandangkan ramai di antara kita yang berminat dengan kerjaya dalam bidang ini, saya ingin berkongsi tentang bidang-bidang yang perlu anda pelajari jika terpilih untuk memasuki perkhidmatan Kawalan Trafik Udara. Saya amat berharap agar post ini dapat membantu dan menjadi eagle eye bagi semua yang bercita-cita dalam bidang ini.
Area Control Center
In air traffic control, an Area Control Center (ACC), also known as a Center, is a facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region) at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures. In the United States, such a Center is referred to as an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).
A Center typically accepts traffic from, and ultimately passes traffic to, the control of a Terminal Control Center or of another Center. Most Centers are operated by the national governments of the countries in which they are located. The general operations of Centers world-wide, and the boundaries of the airspace each Center controls, are governed by the International Civil Aviation Organization.
In some cases, the function of an Area Control Center and a TRACON are combined in a single facility such as a CERAP.
The United States Federal Aviation Administration defines an ARTCC as
[a] facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace, principally during the en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities and controller workload permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft. An ARTCC is the U.S. equivalent of an Area Control Center (ACC).
The Flight Information Region controlled by a Center may be further administratively subdivided into sectors; each sector may use a distinct set of communications frequencies and personnel. An aircraft passing from one sector to another may be handed off and requested to change frequencies to contact the next sector controller. Sector boundaries are specified by an aeronautical chart.
Air traffic controllers working within a Center communicate via radio with pilots of instrument flight rules aircraft passing through the Center's airspace. A Center's communication frequencies (typically in the very high frequency
aviation bands, 118 MHz to 137 MHz, for overland control) are published in aeronautical charts and manuals, and will also be announced to a pilot by the previous controller during a hand-off.
In addition to radios to communicate with aircraft, Center controllers have access to communication links with other Centers and TRACONs. In the United States, Centers are electronically linked through the National Airspace System, which allows nationwide coordination of traffic flow to manage congestion. Centers in the United States also have electronic access to nationwide radar data.
Controllers use radar to monitor the progress of flights and instruct aircraft to perform course adjustments as needed to maintain separation from other aircraft. Aircraft with which a Center has made radar contact can be readily distinguished by their transponders. Pilots may also request altitude adjustments or course changes to avoid turbulence or adverse weather conditions.
Typically, Centers have advance notice of a plane's arrival and intentions from its prefiled flight plan.
Some Centers have ICAO-designated responsibility for airspace located over an ocean, the majority of which is international airspace. Because substantial volumes of oceanic airspace lie beyond the range of ground-based radars, oceanic airspace controllers have to estimate the position of an airplane from pilot reports and computer models (procedural control), rather than observing the position directly (radar control, also known as positive control). Pilots flying over an ocean can determine their own positions accurately using the Global Positioning System and can supply periodic updates to a Center. See also Air traffic control: Radar Coverage.
A Center's control service for an oceanic FIR may be operationally distinct from its service for a domestic overland FIR over land, employing different communications frequencies, controllers, and a different ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) code.
Pilots typically use high frequency radio instead of very high frequency radio to communicate with a Center when flying over the ocean, because of HF's relatively greater propagation over long distances.
Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) Malaysia is establish as an organization under the Ministry of Transport, Malaysia to provide efficient and safe air transportation.
TO ENSURE EVERY FLIGHT WITHIN MALAYSIAN AIRSPACE IS SAFE, ORDERLY & EXPEDITIOUS
'TOWARDS SAFER SKIES'
Divisions Within DCA:
- AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SECTOR
- AIRWORTHINESS SECTOR
- FLIGHT OPERATIONS SECTOR
- AIR TRANSPORT DIVISION
- MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION
- AIR TRAFFIC INSPECTORATE DIVISION
- AIRPORT STANDARDS DIVISION
- AVIATION SECURITY DIVISION
- MALAYSIAN AVIATION ACADEMY
Policy for Safe Air Transportation
DCA's policy for aviation programme and activities in the 21st Millennium has been formulated as follows
The DCA Plan sets clear and practical goals that will improve air safety, develop a more effective safety and economic regulatory and foster a more vibrant aviation industry
The challenge is for DCA to lead the aviation community in providing Malaysia with a world class air safety environment which has public trust and confidence. DCA's vision for the future is 'Safest Transportation Possible For All
The Goals for DCA are:
- up-to-date simplified regulations aligned with international best practice;
- a consistent approach to enforcement and encouragement of industry to accept its safety responsibility;
- a safety-system approach to surveillance audits;
- the timely provision of regulatory services;
- staff with regulatory expertise and strong industry background;
- a proactive management of information; and
- stable leadership with a clear strategic direction for the future.
The Plan and its goals will have practical results in uplifting safety, building a better DCA and fostering a stronger industry.
DCA has identified ten specific areas where performance can and will be improved to deliver outcomes that will be measured.These ten areas cover industry operational issues, developments within DCA and community consultation and communications.
One of the important outcomes will be to ensure everything DCA does is consistent, transparent and accountable.
DCA will continue to develop as a credible and respected aviation regulatory authority both in Malaysia and internationally.We must make our regulations easy to follow and we must take a nationally consistent approach to those operators who chose not to follow the rules.
Antara jawatan dalam bidang ini :
1. Juruterbang/Pemeriksa Juruterbang (A41):
Bertanggungjawab memandu kapal terbang awam atau swasta, merancang, menyelia, menguji, mengubahsuai carta-carta penerbangan, mengambil foto dari udara, mengendalikan peperiksaan juruterbang, mengeluarkan lesen juruterbang, mengumpul maklumat penyelidikan kerosakan dan kemalangan pesawat serta data-data teknikal semua pesawat terbang.
Bertanggungjawab memberikan perkhidmatan kawalan trafik Area Control di ruang udara Malaysia selaras dengan peraturan-peraturan yang terkandung di dalam Manual Arahan Operasi (M.O.I) dan Unit Arahan Operasi (U.O.I) dan sebagainya dengan memberi panduan, arahan dan kebenaran kepada juruterbang bagi membantu mereka supaya dapat mengendalikan pesawat dengan selamat, teratur dan pantas.
Bertanggungjawab memberikan perkhidmatan Aerodrome/ Approach Control kepada semua juruterbang/pesawat di ruang udara Malaysia selaras dengan peraturan-peraturan yang terkandung di dalam Manual Arahan Operasi (M.O.I), Unit Arahan Operasi (U.O.I) dan sebagainya serta mengendalikan data-data operasi untuk kegunaan kawalan trafik udara.
Bertanggungjawab untuk menerima, memproses dan menghantar mesej-mesej Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network dan memeriksa serta mengesahkan penghantaran mesej yang diterima.
Bertanggungjawab menjalankan tugas-tugas pemeriksa kapal terbang, pemeriksaan pesawat terbang bagi menentukan keperluan airworthiness, memeriksa dan meluluskan pertubuhan syarikat penerbangan, mengeluarkan sijil kelulusan untuk pesawat udara, menjalankan penyelidikan ke atas kerosakan pesawat-pesawat penerbangan awam dan mengambil bahagian dalam penyiasatan kemalangan pesawat udara dan menyediakan laporannya.
Bertanggungjawab menyelenggara, mengubahsuai, membaiki kapal terbang dan alatnya secara berjadual atau diperlukan oleh pembekal atau penguatkuasa penerbangan awam. Memeriksa dan mengesahkan alat pandu arah penerbangan dari udara di dalam kapal terbang jabatan, alat pandu arah di bumi Malaysia dan negara jiran, alat piawaian dan alat pemeriksaan di makmal.